The Neurotransmitter Adrenaline

The Neurotransmitter Adrenaline

Often called adrenaline, this neurotransmitter regulates visceral functions. It is normally produced by the adrenal glands and a few neurons in the medulla oblongata. When an allergic reaction occurs, it causes an increase in blood adrenaline levels.


The neurotransmitter epinephrine regulates heart rate and the body's response to threats. It also has an effect on the nervous system by modulating dopaminergic neurons. This neurotransmitter is produced in the body by the adrenal medulla and is rapidly released into the portal circulation. It works on both alpha and beta receptors to regulate cellular processes.

Neurotransmitters have two main types: inhibitory and excitatory actions. They influence the action potential of neurons by binding to the synaptic membranes. In turn, these neurotransmitters trigger a cascade of events in the cell that regulates its activity. The effects of these neurotransmitters vary depending on the type of neurotransmitter and the activity of its receptors.


The epinephrine hormone is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. This hormone regulates various visceral functions. It is normally produced by the adrenal glands and a small number of neurons located in the medulla oblongata.

This hormone is derived from the amino acid tyrosine. It belongs to the catecholamine family and is composed of carbon, hydrogen, hydroxyl groups, and methyl groups on nitrogen. The molar mass of epinephrine is 183.206 grams/mol.


A person suffering from an allergic reaction may receive a single dose of epinephrine or they may receive several doses. The standard dose for an adult is 0.15 mg intramuscularly, and the dose for children is 0.3 mg. There are also epinephrine auto-injectors that you can keep on hand and administer as needed.

The dosage of epinephrine is titrated to the desired mean arterial pressure, and may be increased or decreased every 10 minutes. Further treatment may be necessary. In addition to infusions, epinephrine may also be administered intravenously, or through an IV drip. The medication should not be given to children without the consent of their parents or medical professionals.

Treatment of anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome. Treatment includes the administration of epinephrine in the form of an autoinjector. It is important to identify the correct formulation of epinephrine and to educate patients on the use of this medication. Other therapeutic options include monoclonal antibodies, COVID-19 vaccine, and mRNA vaccines.

Anaphylaxis is characterized by a variety of symptoms. Anaphylaxis can present in the form of a skin rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, or anaphylactic shock accompanied by hypotension. NIAID has published guidelines on the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. These guidelines are useful in identifying patients who might be at risk for anaphylaxis.