Understanding the Ontogeny and Function of a B Cell

· 2 min read
Understanding the Ontogeny and Function of a B Cell

To better understand the role of the B cell in the immune system, it is important to know what makes these cells unique. In this article, you'll learn about their ontogeny and function, along with some surface markers. Once you understand the role of the B cell in the body, you'll be ready to identify this type of cell.

Immune system

The immunological process of B cells involves interacting with armed helper T cells. This interaction activates the B cell and establishes its primary focus for clonal expansion. The B cell then migrates rapidly into the lymphoid tissues and encounters antigen-bound helper T cells. As the B cells divide and proliferate, they acquire mutations that increase their affinity for the antigen. This process is called affinity maturation.

Function

The B cell is a critical component of the immune system. It interacts with T cells and innate cells and contributes to adaptive immunity through antigen presentation and costimulation. These interactions enable B cells to stimulate T-cell differentiation and activation and generate memory T cells. When the B cell is dysfunctional, memory T-cell numbers and function decline. In addition, B cells are involved in establishing long-term immunological memory.

Ontogeny

Ontogeny of b cells controls the capacity of the thymus to produce B cells. These cells are derived from syngeneic adult thymus cells, fetal thymus cells, and bone marrow. The immune system of an animal must evaluate the repertoire of B cells to determine whether they are effective and nondetrimental.

Surface markers

Surface markers in a b cell have numerous applications in drug discovery and personalized medicine. Their increasing use in research and development is a key driver for the market. A growing number of countries and organizations are investing in these technologies.

Autoimmunity

Autoreactive B cells are critical for the pathogenesis and development of organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. Typically, they are considered the source of autoantibodies, although they may also secrete proinflammatory cytokines. The autoantibodies produced by autoreactive B cells are a major rate-limiting step in the genesis of autoimmunity. While autoantibodies are normally inhibited, they become activated during disease.

Cancer

B cell cancer is a type of leukaemia triggered by cancer of the B cell. Fortunately, there are several therapeutic options available. First, we must understand what is involved in the development of B cell cancer. This cancer develops from immature B cells. These cells have not matured into plasma cells and, as a result, spend most of their time in lymph nodes. During this time, they imitate the behaviour of normal B cells.