Diagnosing pancreatic cysts or pseudocysts can be a difficult challenge because they are located deep in the abdomen. Advancements in imaging technology have made pancreatic cysts and pseudocysts easier to spot than ever before. Transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) uses sound waves to identify pancreatic cysts. An abdominal CT scan provides more diagnostic detail than ultrasound, and MRI scans reveal minute details and solid components of pancreatic cysts and pseudocysts. However, they are not as commonly used today as they were in the past.
Diseases of the pancreas
The pancreas has two main ducts: the duct of Wirsung and the duct of Santorini. They are usually connected by the papilla of Vater and enter the duodenum. There are several diseases affecting the pancreas, both inflammatory and neoplastic. This article will discuss both types of pancreatic disease and explain how these conditions affect the function and integrity of the pancreas.
Treatment options for pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer is a disease that develops in the exocrine cells of the pancreas, which produce the enzymes necessary for digestion and hormones that are released into the bloodstream. Most cases of pancreatic cancer start in these cells. Some types of pancreatic cancer are classified as exocrine, including pancreatic adenocarcinomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Diagnosis of pancreatic cysts
The detection of pancreatic cysts has improved, in part because of widespread EUS procedures and the use of molecular analysis of aspirated fluid. While cytology and CEA levels are still insufficient for determining the presence of neoplastic or non-neoplastic pancreatic cysts, these new technologies may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. A new technique, EUS-nCLE, involves the passage of a 19-gauge needle through the cyst wall and the analysis of its contents. Cytopathologists may also detect the presence of a finger-like papilla or epithelial bands that are consistent with a malignant cyst.
Treatment options for adenocarcinoma
In a recent case study, a 78-year-old man was referred to Cleveland Clinic for treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDAC). He developed early satiety and loss of appetite over the summer months. He later presented at his local emergency department with abdominal pain and jaundice. Imaging revealed a mass in his pancreatic head. Upon biopsy, the tumor was determined to be low-grade pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The patient was sent home with an external biliary drain.
Treatment options for neuroendocrine tumors
If a patient is diagnosed with neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas, there are several treatment options available to them. The primary goal of treatment is to remove the tumor and prevent its spread. Various methods are available to treat NETs, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery is the most common method for treating pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The type of surgery used will depend on the tumor size, as nearby tissue may need to be removed as well.