The lethality of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is primarily due to aggressive growth, late diagnosis, and therapy resistance. One of the hallmarks of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the tumor microenvironment, which influences therapy resistance. A lack of accurate models limits the current state of preclinical research to clinic translation. Therefore, this article will discuss the main hallmarks of this disease.
The TNM staging system assigns cancer numbers based on size, location, and whether cancer has spread to other organs. The lower the stage number, the more limited the cancer is, while the higher the number, the more widespread the cancer is. Stage 0 refers to pancreatic cancer that has not spread to other organs. Treatment options depend on the stage and extent of cancer.
The prognosis for pancreatic adenocarcinoma is poor. Around half of all patients have metastasized disease, while only 30 percent have locally advanced disease. With such a poor prognosis, patients are usually offered supportive or palliative care for a period of time. With the emergence of endoscopic ultrasound, this procedure is becoming more widely used as an interventional therapeutic tool.
There are several different staging systems for pancreatic adenocarcinomas. In the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, patients are staged according to their tumor characteristics. These criteria are based on assumptions about the technical ability to reconstruct the SMV, PV, and their confluence. The authors have reviewed several sources for information on pancreatic cancer staging.
Molecular characteristics of pancreatic adenoma have been identified through a multidisciplinary approach. Researchers have characterized the four subtypes of pancreatic cancer using the gene expression profiles of individual tumor cells. These subtypes differ in their gene expression patterns, which may be responsible for the varying tumor responses to different types of chemotherapy. The following information is based on data from the research of Bailey and co-workers.
Various modalities are available for preoperative imaging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The most widely used and validated technique is specialized pancreatic MDCT, but MRI can also be used. An accurate assessment of the primary tumor is critical for characterizing the disease. Structured reporting of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a key component of pancreatic CT angiography.